A Note From the Founders !

Welcome To Bell’s Branding, Inc.

I am very pleased to share our new website with you. I’ve learned a lot during this experience and would love to share my knowledge with others. As my own journey into the business world has progressed, I’ve found myself getting increasingly interested in the technical community and other aspects of design from graphics to web design, computers, and general software development.

About Erin Bell 

I’m continously developing and trying amazing new software, so I felt it was only right to start sharing more about my technical journey and all the areas that are very important to me. Many people in my life are interested in learning some of the tips and tricks I’ve found out through my years of playing with gadgets and software so I thought it was time to share it with the world. Have a lovely time with our website and I hope you guys enjoy the buzz!

Don’t forget to contact me for website development, graphic design, and much more!


About Christian Johnson

Christian Johnson is a high-energy leader and entrepreneur with a strong grasp of management theories and principals, brand positioning, revenue growth, financial management and driving operational excellence. A strong focus on customer satisfaction and loyalty. Well-developed employee relations, motivation, and management development.


Visit Our Blog Today

The Water Shortage Crisis

Erin Bell

Climate change will be the end of humanity.

Weather is getting extreme due to:

    •Daily Toxics
    •Green House Gasses
    •Warmer Air in Oceans and Mountains
    •Vaporized Water = Humidity
    •Heat in air = Rain & Snow
    •Heat in Water = Storms & Hurricanes
    •Heat on land = Drought.

Climate change: world wide security threat to humankind.

Simplified Water Cycle:

C. Precipitation
D. Collection

Massive water loss on earth:

1) Evaporated water vanishes once it dries off.
2) Vaporized water turns into liquid.
3) Once water falls in the ocean and is no longer drinkable.
4) most of drinkable water comes from glaciers that melt into rivers.
Air pollution is everywhere in the planet.
Plant and factories contaminate our oxygen.
Laws are not always implemented.

Global Warming Effects on Agriculture


Americans eat 3 times more meet than other countries.
156 hamburgers per person per year.
Cows use 30% of our land.
Meet contains a lot of water.
Cows eat too much and continuously.
Cows produce toxic gas to humans.

Las Vegas & The Hoover Dam/Lake Mead

The bathtub ring:
The Las Vegas metropolitan area draws 90
percent of its water supply from Lake Mead
Visible at the top of the Hoover  Dam, this ‘bathtub ring’
shows the devastating effects of a drought which has seen the
level of Lake Mead drop to an historic low.
The lake’s surface now sits at
the lowest point at it has been since it started
being filled in the early 1930s when the
dam was finished at only 1000ft.
Worst Case Scenario Lake Mead
drops down to 895 feet above sea level.
At that point, water would simply cease to
flow through to the Hoover Dam.

The third straw

Nevada Water Authority is frantically drilling
the “Third Straw” under Lake Mead at a cost of
$850 million, racing to get its water out of the
lake before it’s too busy.
The pipeline won’t draw more water from the
lake than before, or make the surface level drop
any faster. But it will keep taps flowing in Las
Vegas homes and casinos even if drought-stricken
Lake Mead drops to its lowest levels
They also took measures with their residents to
prevent water use. The hotels now use recycled water.


Due to lack of rain, California has seen four years of drought.

The agricultural sector faces $1.84 billion in losses,
coupled with approximately 10,100 seasonal jobs.
Many Californians expect El Nino to solve all of the
droughts problems but in fact it may do more harm than
good because the terrain is now ill-equipped to handle
such weather.

Bottled Water is Wasteful

Plastic water bottles take over 1,000 years to bio-degrade and about 80% of all single-use water bottles in the U.S. become “litter.”

1 out of every 5 bottles are put in the recycle bin
U.S. landfills are overflowing with 2 million tons of discarded bottles.
It takes over 1.5 million barrels of oil to meet the demand of U.S. water bottle manufacturing.
About 3 liters of water is used to package 1 liter of bottled water.


The distance from Fiji to San Francisco is 8,700 km. Each bottle will have a mass of 1.025kg each. So, 81g of fossil fuels, 720g of water and 153g of Greenhouse Gases per bottle are used to deliver these bottles from Fiji to the U.S.

The manufacture and transport of one kilogram bottle of Fiji water consumed 7.1 gallons of water, one litre of fossil fuel and emitted 1.2 pounds of greenhouse gases.
Nearly seven times as much water is used to make it than you actually end up drinking.

The Lack of Clean Water

Today, nearly 1 in 9 people don’t have access to clean, safe water. Yet, we take it for granted, we waste it and we even pay too much to drink it from plastic bottles.
Over ⅓ of the worlds population has no access to sanitation facilities.
At any time, half of the worlds hospital beds are occupied by patients suffering from water-borne diseases. 
1 out of every 4 deaths under the age of 5 worldwide is due to water-related disease.

Water Usage in animal agriculture

At what cost to the planet is the
high consumption of meat and dairy
in the developed world?
Animal agriculture industry uses 34 trillion gallons of
water per year > most water intensive human activity water 
used for growing grain to feed 70 billion farm animals raised
for human consumption

How to write a technical description

Erin Bell

Technical Description: Flashlight by Husky
Written By: Erin L. Bell

General Description

Definition: The flashlight by Husky is a handheld, portable, battery operated light source

Purpose: Useful tool to find something in an area with no light source or emergency situation

causing blackouts, or outdoor use

Overall Description: Portable, hand-sized flashlight weighing about 8 ounces with a diameter

of about 1 inch at the head of the flashlight, and about a half inch at the base of the flashlight,
basically cylindrical in shape, made almost completely of plastic

Main Sections:

Head- Casing to hold parts, lens, reflector, bulb, bulb seat
Base- Handle or case, switch, spring at bottom, copper strip, batteries
Figure 1- Line Drawing of parts.

Parts Description

The head of the flashlight consists of the lens, reflector, bulb, and bulb seat. It has a
casing to hold the parts together. When fully assembled, head is 1 inch long. The head
completes the flashlight by screwing into the body of the flashlight.


Reflector Bulb
Lens: Keeps the bulb from getting dirty or damaged.
Reflector: Directs, or focuses light into the beam.
Bulb: Provides illumination or a light source; not plastic.
Bulb Seat: Holds bulb into place and creates an electrical connection.


The body of the Flashlight is about 6 inches. It consists of a case, switch, spring, copper
strip, and batteries. The outside of the body completely made of plastic but the interior
has parts made of plastic, metal, and copper.
Case: Holds the parts of the flashlight together.
Switch: Gives user the choice to switch the power off and on
Spring: Causes tension and pushes batteries and electricity to the switch
Copper Strip: The strip electricity travels along to the spring and switch
Batteries: The battery compartment holds two AA batteries together; power source
Portable, small, cylindrical, or in the shape of a cone.
Head screws clockwise to screw into the casing.

Operating Description

How to use:
1. Place batteries in flashlight
2. Direct light source to point of desire
3. Push switch to turn on flashlight


To Replace batteries: unscrew head counterclockwise, dispose of batteries; replace head.
Lifespan of battery is short
Flashlight has limited range
Flashlight not waterproof or shock resistant


Don’t shine in eyes
Don’t let battery touch skin
Remove batteries between usage for corroded batteries

Technical Criteria of All Designs

Erin Bell

  1. 1. A design should exhibit an architecture that:

(1). Has been created using recognizable architectural styles or patterns,

(2). Is composed of components that exhibit good design characteristics, and

(3). Can be implemented in an evolutionary fashion
For smaller systems, design can sometimes be developed linearly.
A design exhibits an architecture that is clear and concise. This includes using recognizable architectural styles such as communication, deployment, domain, and structure. An architectural pattern is a set of reusable solutions or principles to a commonly occurring problem in a software design or application. The design also exhibits good design characteristics such as the pharmacy not having the ability to access the same information as the doctors. This ensures the design can be implemented in smaller or larger systems because it can be interchangeable between all different possible design patterns. Because of the agile development pattern that our design implements, the design can be developed linearly as well as non-linear.

  1. A design should be modular; that is, the software should be logically partitioned into elements or subsystems.
A modular design is useful because it takes separate components of the design and in the end combines them together. This is crucial in a team environment because different elements can be assigned to different members of a team thus dividing the workload. For example, a member of the team can work on the GUI for the doctors and pharmacists while another member can work on security and testing or documentation. Having a modular design results in a more well-rounded and simple interface that is able to be reused.

  1. A design should contain distinct representations of data, architecture, interfaces, and components.
Our team has excelled in representing the different elements of the design model. We used abstraction to represent our data in the user interface. The raw data is being stored into a database but is translated into an easily viewable screen for the user. The architecture was one of the first elements planned for our software. Our team wanted the overall structure of the software to be very user friendly. The architecture was set for a login screen that would send the user to one screen with minimal windows to manage. Once the architecture was set, the interfaces were designed. Each window was designed with 2 overall goals—ease of use and aesthetically pleasing. We achieved this by clearly defining and labeling the user interface. Lastly, we used abstraction to aid our use of components. We implemented this in the system’s login and search buttons. Those components query the database and take action based on the response. In the graphic interface, the user is not aware of the logic behind each component, keeping the system user friendly.
  1. A design should lead to data structures that are appropriate for the classes to be implemented and are drawn from recognizable data patterns.
Our system’s main data storage is a remote database connected to our java program. Using the database decreases the need for local data structures. The advantages of not having local data structures are faster search and lookup, efficient system, and small memory usage. However, our classes are built to implement the database. Each class connects to the database for a different purpose to create a cohesive user interface.
  1. A design should lead to components that exhibit independent functional characteristics.
A design is one of the most important part of software development process. For example, an engineer designs the structural map of the building before incorporating it into a physical building. Similarly, in software development, design is very important that provides the guideline for the developers to write the code. Here, I am trying to explain how design is important in any field.
Functional independency is possible only when best design approach is applied. The design starts from UML class diagram. As we know that class is anything that represent the enterprise. Modular design increases the efficiency of the development process as it also enforces the divide and conquer method while debugging the errors in programming. Functional independency means attribute independency, and attribute independence allows for the redesign of a module with minimized effects on the rest of the product.
  1. A design should lead to interfaces that reduce the complexity of connections between components and with the external environment.
Interface is very important when it comes to user communication. For example, in our project the pharmacy and the doctor as a user should feel easy while navigating different components of the   software. For instance, let’s say the pharmacy wants to look up the patient information to look for the drugs prescribed by the doctor. Here, it will be very inconvenient to look through all the patient. Instead, a search function should be designed to make it convenient for the pharmacy and doctor to look up their patient information. The complexity is drastically reduced while this approach is applied carefully during the design of the user interface.
  1. A design should be derived using a repeatable method that is driven by information obtained during software requirements analysis.
A repeatable method is a set of actions that can be easily duplicated in order to build and couple the designing components for the current development as well as future enhancements of the product. This is essential criteria in designing quality software product since it allows project team to make efficient use of component which impacts the budget over the time.

During the software requirement analysis, our team reached to different medical groups to find out the possible content of E-prescription and finally came up with the designing based on repeated analysis of research data (attributes of E-prescription).

Key steps in developing repeatable method to include:

  • Understanding the Pharmacy project goal, objectives and stakeholders.

  • Documenting the current flow of patient prescription process.

  • Analyzing the significant process gap and possible variations by brainstorming.
  1. A design should be represented using a notation that effectively communicates its meaning.
Our software is designed with notations that is easily understandable, both user interaction wise and programming wise. For the users, in our GUI design, we provided labels for each text area that the users can edit/read so that the user can understand what each text areas represent. For instance, to the left of the text area where the doctor enters the first name of the patient, or where the first name of the patient show up for the pharmacist, we have a label that says “First Name:” which indicates that the text area is there for entering/reading the first name of the patient. Just like this, we have every other text areas for like address, state, zip code, phone and more labeled to the left appropriately (or for some larger sized text areas, to the top).  Also, our GUI is designed with headings on each of the windows, “Log In” on our logging in window for example, so that the user clearly understands the purpose of each window. Finally, our menus at the top left corner and buttons located in our GUI are also designed with notations that should sound very familiar to the users. We used very basic words like “Open” and “Save” which are used in most other software around there.

For the developers, we used meaningful notations so that anyone who will be working on this design will have clear understanding of what each of them means. Variables and methods we created for our software’s functionality have appropriate naming so that we can understand what the method or variable is for and their usage. For instance, our text area for the doctors to write in the patient’s first name, or for the pharmacist to read the patient’s first name, is given a name “txtFirst”, which has the abbreviation of the type of variable (text) and a type of information we want (patient’s first name) combined together. Similarly to this, the label variable for the first name is named “lblFirst”.

All about Google Drive

Erin Bell

This is google docs. You can access it anytime you want. If you want to add a new document, click on File and add a new document. Dont forget to click the folder button next to the name to add it to the drive so I can see it. You can add spreadsheets, presentations, drawings, all kinds of things just let me know if you need help. Im going to add a separate document for research. This is just tips to let you know how to use it.

For instance, to insert table click the table tab.

Job Description
Erin Bell
Web Developer

You can also add pictures by either uploading. Click Insert tab. Insert image or a drawing. Or you can copy and paste just like you would anything else. Its essentially just like Microsoft Word but better!
For example, we need to work on a business plan.

Another tip, you can download anything we post here to your computer by pressing File -> Download As and whatever type of file this is. You can upload a file if you need to as well by File->Open and on the far right it says upload. Print is the button under File just select print from my computer.

Everything saves automatically so no need to save. Dont add anyone into the share except me so no one steals our ideas. That’s all I have for now.
Reach me:
Please add yours.

Computer Networking Basics Tutorial

Erin Bell
Erin Bell
Computer Networking

CCNA certification


Network definition: A group of two or more computer systems linked together. Computers linked need a way to share data through communications media such as copper wires, radio waves, fiber-optics, wifi, etc. Data including documents, pictures, videos, files, etc. Nodes-laptops, PC, server, router, modem, printer, etc



Biggest computer network worldwide. Web server is available to anyone. Web hosting is how you get info on web server. ex.) go daddy-lots of memory.


Browsers job is accessing data through wireless from computer to servers. Send request to server, server sends files to computer, web browser interprets files to texts and pictures.

Peer to peer networks


Network hosts don’t have specific role. They both provide network services and consume. For example shared printer on one computer and shared hard drive on another. Benefits: simplicity-no trouble to configure, inexpensive-installation only. Drawbacks-manageability-difficult to support because lack administrator/no central computer.

Client-server network


Network hosts have specific roles. Certain hosts are assigned to be servers-provides network resources. Clients-consumes network services; windows professional, etc. Different operating systems. Servers have special designed operating systems ex.) netware, linux, etc highly scalable, easy to add more servers because servers are centralized.



LAN(local area network)- resides in small geographic area ex.) one particular business, several floors etc perhaps college campus sharing printer (internetworking). Connected by cable or wireless.

WAN(wide area network)-group of LANS separated geographically widely ex.) range from different states. Benefits: access file in another location because they are internetworked

MAN(metropolitan area network)-larger than LAN, often span large cities, computers are all connected.



Baseband-one signal at a time on network medium signal used entire medium at the same time ex.) old telephones one signal on wire at time

Broadband-divides network medium into multiple channels, multiple signals being transmitted on same medium at the same time ex.) cable provider

NIC(network interface cards)


Part of computer that allows you to connect to the internet. Connects to the motherboard and ethernet port or wireless network interface cards which allows you to connect to a network with a communications media. In Device manager on Windows shows all parts of computer-network adapters shows card built into the desktop.





Rules for communication. set of exchanges between computers. MAC—>web server.

Step 1.)MAC  requests to connect to server Step 2.) web server accepts being connected to

Step 3.)MAC requests to Get file Step 4.) Web server sends files


http:// hypertext transfer protocol- set of rules computer has to use to access name of the server(www.thenewboston.com) /index.php- file

Topology/Layout-the way you will connect/design the computers/networks. Cost, installation, ease of maintenance.

Bus-one main cable(ethernet) devices “nodes” will be connected along this cable/wire. ex.) Home or office. Terminators are devices to put at the ends of the cables signal bounces off ends and mirrors back if there is a lack of terminators bad because multiple messages will be sent. When requesting data, signal travels through every node but server will be the only one who responds. Not the best topology to use-outdated.

Devices are all connected to two main ring in center. No logical beginning and end making it better than bus topology. Signal travels node by node and continues until it returns to the source.

Common topology for home networks. Many different nodes connected to central device etc router. Ethernet or wireless connects devices to router. Looks like a star. Low costs. Easy to expand. The rest of the nodes aren’t affected by one damaged nodes on the network. Downside
is that entire network is dependent on one router so every node won’t work if router is damaged.

Signal can provide alternate routes in case cable breaks so there is build in protection. Looks kind of like  a jewish star. More nodes equals more communication paths in case one gets damaged. Downside is it is very expensive need a lot of cables and NIC cards. Not used in LAN mostly WAN and MAN.


How to Write a QA Case Study

Erin Bell



A case study on a mobile devices’
address book and social network

Question 1: Address Book………………………………………….…………2
Background ……………………………………………………………………………………….2
iPhone 5s…………………………………………………………………………………………..2
Adding a contact ………………………………………………………………………………..3
How it works………………………………………………………………4
Question 2: Facebook Functionality…………………………………………………………..5
Functionality List ……………………………………………………………………………….5
Question 3: Reporting Facebook Bugs……………………………………………………….8
Issue Report……………………………………………………………………………………….8

This case study will detail the interface for an iPhone 5s when adding a contact to the address
book. An interface is the means in which a person controls a software application or hardware
device. Subsequently, the case study will detail a list of the fifteen top priority functionalities
offered by the website Facebook.com. In software engineering, functionality is the sum or aspect
of what a product can do for its user. Finally, this case study will supply a detailed issue report for
a bug found on Facebook. An issue report is a way of reporting a problem in a crystal clear way so
the developer can become aware of the issue.

Q u e s t i o n 1

Section 1.1: Background
An address book is a way to store contact information and other personal information into a database.
The address book database then is shared with other applications throughout the device. A database is
an organized group of information stored into a table. When creating a new contact, the information is
inputted by the user and saved into the database.

Section 1.2: iPhone 5s
The type of phone being documented in this case study is the iPhone 5s. The mobile device is
classified as a smartphone. This phone was released in October 2013 and runs on the iOS 7 operating
system. It uses the new M7 coprocessor to coincide with the A7 chip and a variety of different features
for more efficient and rapid use. The address book’s built-in app is optimized to take advantage of the
A7 chip’s 64-bit architecture

Section 1.3: Adding a contact
When creating a new contact with the iOS operating system, you begin with going to the contacts
application. There is currently a view of a database with all existing contacts in the phone. To proceed
with adding the contact, there will be a “plus” sign in the upper right hand corner implying that you
wish to add a new contact. There is then a list of empty values available for you to input various
contact information including name, phone, email, photo, address, etc. Once the values are inserted,
the user clicks the “done” screen which saves the contact into the database.

Step 1: Turn the phone on by pressing the button at the top right corner of the phone.

Step 2: Touch the “Phone” icon on the lower left corner of the screen.

Step 3: Touch the “Plus” in the upper right corner.

Step 4: Input information into the empty data sections.

Step 5: Once finished touch the “Done” screen to save information.

Step 6: Press the button in the center to return home.

Section 1.4: How it works
The address book in the iPhone works with the Address Book UI Framework which provides view
and navigation controllers. The New-person View Controller prompts the user to create a new record.
If the user saves the contact by pressing “done”, the record gets added to the address book. If the
user cancels the record, the value of person gets a NULL value. Also the iPhone works with a
touch screen to input data. The iPhone uses a coordinate system. Its circuitry senses changes along
the grid at every point in the coordinate system. Each position on the grid produces its own signal
when touched and transmits that signal to the iPhone’s processor. The phone then determines the
location and movement of the user’s touch in multiple locations.

Question 2
Facebook Functionality
Section 2.1: Background on Facebook
Facebook is a social network website that was founded in 2004. Since its creation by Mark
Zuckerberg, CEO, it has had over 1.28 billion users join. Facebook is currently the largest social
network in the world. The website is used worldwide with 70 different languages available. It is
seen as an extremely successful business. It generates revenue from its advertisements that appear
on the user’s page, credits, and partnerships. Facebook generates traffic from the multiple amounts
of users using its site daily.

Section 2.2: List of Functionalities

1.) Sign Ups- Signing up to Facebook is one if not the most important function of Facebook
because it benefits both the user and the business. In order to get most of the usage of the website a
user must join Facebook. This benefits the company because the goal of the company is to increase
its users.

2.) Friends- Once a user has joined Facebook, friending other individuals is important because the
user needs to be able to connect with other users. This benefits the company because more friends
can invite potential users to join.

3.) News Feed- The News Feed allows users to view what their friends are doing or saying. This is
important to the user because they can be more entertained and stay connected to their friends. It is
important for the company because if the user isn’t connecting, they will cancel their accounts and
in turn the company will lose users.

4.) Wall- The wall is used to update your status meaning what the user thinks is important enough
to post for their friends to see. This included status updates as well as attachments. The wall is
important for the same reasons as the news feed for entertainment and connection purposes of the

5.) Facebook Mobile Apps- This is a very important function of Facebook because the user can
continue to be connected with other users on their mobile devices when they aren’t able to be in
front of the computer. It is important to the company because more users can join even without a

6.) Like- The like function is there to express how the user feels about another user’s status. They
also can comment on their friend’s status as well. This is also another feature in the entertainment
aspect of Facebook. The user can also like advertisements which are beneficial for the company to
make revenue.

7.) Instant Messenger- A Facebook user can send a message to any number of his/her friends at a
time. The message system combines text messaging, instant messaging, emails, and regular
messages. Instant messaging is very popular as it rivals other companies messaging and even
emails which is beneficial for the company in competition.

8.) Groups- Facebook Groups can be created by individual users. Groups allow members to post
content such as links, media, questions, events, editable documents, and comments on these items.
There are groups that are public and private. The groups can be beneficial to the company because
people can promote their businesses in the groups and in turn Facebook will gain revenue for their

9.) Places- Places is a feature that lets users “check in” to Facebook using a mobile device to let a
user’s friends know where they are at the moment. This is beneficial to users to connect with their
friends and keep a record at the places they frequently attend. This benefits the user to keep track
of where their friends are which may be important in different situations.

10.) Photos- Users can upload albums of photos, tag friends, and comment on photos. Users can
tag photos with a brand, product, company or person’s Facebook page, similar to the way they tag
their friends in photos. This can benefit the company because they can gain revenue off products
that get tagged by the user.

11.) Videos- Users can add their videos with the service by uploading video, adding video through
Facebook Mobile, and using a webcam recording feature. Additionally, users can “tag” their
friends in videos they add. This is beneficial for the entertainment of the users and for the company
in competition of other social networking sites that use video.

12.) Games- Facebook Credits are a virtual currency that users can use in many games and
applications on Facebook. There are many popular games and users can purchase credits which can
provide entertainment for the users and the company makes money off of Facebook credits.

13.) Calendar- Facebook events are a way for members to let friends know about upcoming events
in their community and to organize social gatherings. Events can be made public or private. The
events are then synced to the calendar on the user’s smart phone if they have the Facebook mobile

14.) Notifications-Informs the user that an addition has been added to his or her profile page. If the
user has the Facebook mobile act the notifications appear on the user’s smart phone. This benefits
the user by staying connected to their friends and the company because more people will download
the Facebook application and in turn sign up for the website.

15.) Search-The search function of Facebook uses a graph search algorithm to find information
from within a user’s network of friends. The search algorithm is similar to google except rather
than using results based on matching keywords, it matches phrases. The user can search for
people, check-ins, posts, places, and pages. The search is beneficial to the company because it can
rival other search engines in its competition and the user benefits by being able to search for
information they need.

Question 3
Reporting a Bug

Section 3.1:
Issue Report
Bug Name: Facebook bug found
Bug ID: 0000001
Area Path: Facebook user> user
Build Number: Version Number 0.01
Severity: MEDIUM
Priority: HIGH
Assigned to: Developer
Reported By: Erin Bell
Reported On: 10/17/2016

Reason: Defect
Status: Active
Environment: Windows 8
Facebook crashed after the like button was pushed.

Reporting issue to the

Steps To Reproduce:
1) Click on top-right corner of Facebook page
2) Select report a problem.
3) Describe issue and description
4) Clicked on ‘Save’ button
5) Seen an error page “Exception: Insert error here…”
6) See the attached logs for more information
7) Also add screenshot image of the problem.
Expected result: On clicking SAVE button, should be prompted to a success message “User
has successfully submitted an issue report”
Save the defect/bug in the bug log.


” [1] “Address Book Programming Guide for IOS.” : User Interaction: Prompting for and Displaying Data.
N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2014.
” [2] “The Issue Register and Issue Report – PRINCE2 Primer.” PRINCE2 Primer RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 09
May 2014.
[3] “User Interface.” Definition. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2014.
[4] “HowStuffWorks “Multi-touch Systems”” HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2014.

Promiscuity in Women Case Study

Erin Bell

Promiscuity in Women: Analyzing
the Double Standards among
Gender Roles and Female

“What if America loved women the way they love objectifying our bodies?” 2 In today’s society, promiscuous women are frowned upon while men are still praised for exhibiting the same behavior. This interesting phenomenon creates a double standard among genders that is subconsciously passed through children from generation to generation. Let’s examine closely a common example of the average person’s response to parents when first meeting their child. When people see a good looking male the average response is that he will grow up to be a heartbreaker but in reverse when people see a good looking female the response is usually to tell dad to get his shotgun. But why are these double standards still so prevalent in society? Perhaps this is due to the negative connotations of promiscuity among women that society subconsciously engrains in the minds of children into adulthood.
Promiscuity is defined as engaging in casual sexual intercourse indiscriminately, or with many persons. Logically, the definition can be split into two halves to further support this theory. The first half of the definition discusses engaging in sexual intercourse indiscriminately. The issue here is that one cannot measure sexually indiscriminate behavior. Indiscriminate is defined as lacking in care, judgement, or selectivity. Therefore, based on the definition, it is deduced that a woman is promiscuous if she lacks judgment or selectivity in her partners. The second half of the definition of promiscuity discusses engaging in sexual intercourse with many persons. The term “many” is synonymous with the terms countless, numerous, a multitude, etc. Therefore, based on the definition, it is deduced that a woman is promiscuous if she has a multitude of sexual partners. But these terms such as selectivity, multitude, indiscriminate, are all subjective. A multitude to one woman may be a small amount to another. How then can a selective woman also be promiscuous if she engages in sexual intercourse with multiple partners?
To further analyze this phenomenon, three particular disciplines were chosen with respect to this topic which includes Anthropology, Biology, and Gender & Women Studies. The first discipline, Anthropology, will examine a closer look at the human anthropological differences between women and men throughout cultures. The second discipline, Biology, will examine a closer look at pheromones, the hormones that drive a woman’s sexuality. The third discipline, Gender and Women’s studies will examine a closer look at the cultural rules and biases that lead to this double standard.  These three different disciplines together will show how each of the disciplines separately tie into the topic of promiscuity, and in-depth look at the disciplines, and the cultural rules and biases that result.
Despite a rapidly advancing modern society that preaches gender equality, women are still plagued with double standards when it comes to their sexuality. Today while men are praised for their behavior, women are still seen as promiscuous if they engage in casual sex. The real issue lies in the word’s meaning itself and there won’t be changes until the negative connotations of the term are removed from society and it recognizes women’s bodies as their own rather than a body to objectify.
With respect to gender and sexuality, Anthropology refers to the study of women, men, and the intersection of gender across cultures. It was not until the 1970s where female anthropologists began to focus on the structural inequalities associated with gender in connection with religious beliefs, childhood development, the role of language, and female sexuality studies. Upon anthropological research, studies were found that the origins of sex differences accounting for the differences in male and female behavior are due to the division of labor between the genders and patriarchy, the greater the status and power of men then woman resulting in men’s ability to control a women’s sexuality and other aspects of their behavior. 3 This may account for the activities and careers males and females end up choosing and the paths they take in life. Males throughout cultures tend to choose activities such as haunting or carpentry while females tend to choose activities such as cooking or water fetching.

Despite these differences, times are changing and women are now becoming the bread winners and are more educated than ever before. Perhaps there is a correlation to why women are still treated as the inferior sex and why society frowns upon sexually promiscuous women while applauding men for their behavior. This discipline differs from the others because it relays more to the sense of gender differences and as to why society might have different views of the gender roles due to men’s role of labor and status over women.

Biology, or human biology, is defined as the physiology, behavior, and other qualities of a particular organism or class of organisms. This discipline will examine the biological attraction between male and female and especially with respect to pheromones. Pheromones are hormones secreted mostly through the axillary sweat glands. These hormones are usually triggered by a positive mood and heightened focus on sexual satisfaction and play a large role in mate selection and sexual desire and arousal. This may be through stimuli and physical contact triggering the senses to create a sexual response in women. Pheromones are dispersed due to odors, clothing layers, temperature, facial hair, body features, arm movements, and the general closeness of the nose. Participating in arousing activities play a large role in the secretion of pheromones and in face kissing and sleeping next to a partner secretes more hormones than sexual intercourse itself.
Table 2-Sexual Behavior and pheromone secretion results 4                                                       

This concludes that female hormones result in sexual attraction and is the body’s natural biological response to engage in sexual intercourse once sexual arousal is reached. This discipline differs from the others because it focuses more on the science of women’s bodies rather than the cultural opinions of society.

Lastly, gender and women’s studies is a field that focuses on gender and a social and cultural construction. This topic closely examines the double standards among gender and the ongoing movement against slut shaming. Slut shaming is defined as the practice of maligning women for presumed sexual activity. 5 Upon research it is discovered that women participate in slut shaming just as much as men as a result of internalized oppression. But why are men expected to carry out their sexual desires while women are expected to only be in a committed loving relationship or even still wait until they are married to participate in such activity? Research of the stigma concludes that the three primary reasons for this is distancing the stigma from one’s self, social pressure among genders to fit in, and the distinct line between boundaries of genders.
Another main cause of the construction of the stigma against sexually promiscuous women is due largely to religious beliefs. Most religions urge females to wait until marriage to participate in sexual activity and often women are seen as objects for their husbands to dutifully please them whenever they see fit and to reproduce children. Perhaps the stigma then comes from the promiscuous women being seen as anti-religious and non-willing to reproduce children as a result of having multiple partners.
One of the most influential papers by a popular geneticist Angus Bateman in 1948 who concluded that sex in females was like economics and was determined by quantity versus quality. He came to his conclusions with the study of fruit flies and determined that females chose the “best” male when looking to mate rather than an increase in reproductive success by mating with many males. Sixty years later further research showed that his theory was flawed and that society just accepted it with assumptions on how female sexuality “ought to be.”
Through my research on promiscuity, I realized that being promiscuous is not always as black or white as I was raised. Growing up I was taught that women who slept around were promiscuous and this resulted in an overall negative connotation to sexually free women around me.
In Conclusion, society needs to change its views towards women and their sexuality. The three particular disciplines were chosen with respect to this topic which includes Anthropology, Biology, and Gender and Women’s Studies. The term promiscuous in itself has a negative connotation and its definition does not apply to all of the women who have been called it. Perhaps an alternative for calling a woman promiscuous that has a better connotation would be “sexually free.”


  • 1.  Wood, W., & Eagly, A. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Behavior of Women and Men: Implications for the Origins of Sex Differences. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from
  • 2.  Armstrong, E., Hamilton, L., Armstrong, E., & Seely, J. (2014, June 14). ‘‘Good Girls’’: Gender, Social Class, and Slut Discourse on Campus. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://www.asanet.org/journals/SPQ/Jun14SPQFeature.pdf
  • 3.  Upton, R. (2012, January 11). Gender. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199766567/obo-9780199766567-0009.xml
  • 4. Johnson, E. (2013, December 4). When Are Women Most Likely to Be Promiscuous? Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2013/12/female_promiscuity_in_primates_when_do_women_have_multiple_partners.html
  • 5. Verhaeghe, J., Gheysen, R., & Enzlin, P. (2013). Pheromones and their effect on women’s mood and sexuality. Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn, 5(3), 189–195.,from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3987372/
  • 6. McCoy, N., & Pitino, L. (2001, November 21). Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in young wome. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://www.athenainstitute.com/1013study.pdf


How to Develop A To-do app with Windows Azure

Erin Bell

                Windows Azure Documentation

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Step 1

To start, what we had to do was log into Windows Azure and create a new Mobile Service. The backend for this service is in Javascript. This new Mobile Service also connected to an SQL Database.


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Step 2

The Database runs on a server avps6g81bg at location West US standard edition max size 250GB.


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Step 3

Because we chose to use the Windows Phone to run the mobile service, we had to choose the Windows platform with the getting started option create a new windows phone or windows phone app.


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Step 4
Next, we had to install Visual Studio Express for Windows and create a developers license. Then we proceeded to download the solution files in which I edited the html file to personalize the app to be more geared towards our final.
Then you deploy the app to the mobile device using F5 after building the solution.

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On the Windows 8 Phone, this is the Icon that gets created. Visual Studio automatically creates this upon deployment.